Saturday, June 6, 2020

What is Post concussion Syndrome ? Diagnosis and Treatment

What is post concussion syndrome? 

As the name implies it happens after traumatic brain injury which is not visible in a CT or MRI brain imaging. Post concussion syndromes occurs due to the physiological and psychological changes that occurs during and after a head injury.
Post head injury many of the patients with concussion injury of the brain may not exhibit any symptoms. After going home may be a few days or weeks later patients will start experiencing the symptoms of post concussion syndrome.

Common symptoms of post concussion syndrome are

Severe headache, mental irritation, memory issues following a head injury is suggestive of post concussion syndrome


·      Headaches
·      Dizziness
·      Fatigue and occasional Irritability
·      Memory and attention problems
·      Sleep problems

How to diagnose post concussion syndrome?

When you have three of the following eight symptoms that develops within 4 weeks after the head injury, it is likely to have post concussion syndrome. They are

·      Headache
·      Dizziness
·      Fatigue
·      Sleep disturbances
·      Irritability
·      Problems with memory
·      Problems with concentration
·      Reduced ability to tolerate stress, emotion

How long the symptoms of post concussion syndrome can last?

The symptoms of post concussion syndromes starts usually within 4 weeks after the head injury. It may last for few weeks to months and in some patients for years. Very few patients have described the symptoms lasting for the rest of their life, but fortunately it is very rare.

What is the treatment of post concussion syndrome?

There is no specific treatment for the post concussion syndrome. Adequate rest after the head injury may be a better way to avoid the occurrence. Also symptomatic medications for headache and other symptoms like lack of sleep etc. is advised usually. As the days progress patients feel better and they learn to manage the symptoms.
Recreational activities and fun therapy reduces to alleviate many symptoms and helps in recovery. Psychological analysis on a regular basis can be done to assess the recovery. Education about the disease, psychosocial support and reassurance are essential in the recovery phase.

Second impact syndrome

punch drunk syndrome or dementia in boxers

 Second impact syndrome happens when another head injury happens when the patient is already in the recovery phase of a pervious head injury. This happens more commonly to sport players playing football, boxing etc. and also in the elderly patients with repeated falls.
The exact mechanisms are not known. But the brain which is in a recovery phase after the first head injury starts swelling after the second blow and it can cause sudden neurological deterioration. Minor repeated injuries can cause chronic traumatic encephalopathy syndrome or dementia pugilistica (punch drunk syndrome) in which patients develops dementia and cognitive decline with diffuse cerebral atrophy on MRI.

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